IT'S TIME!

Time to include preventive vaccination among housing, nutrition, hygiene, ventilation and other natural ways to ensure the wellbeing of farm animals and the sustainable production of quality milk and beef.

"A good farmer is someone who uses all tools available to him to maximise the full productivity of his herd"

Declan & Denis O’Meara
Dairy farmers in Tipperary country, Ireland.

MEET YOUR FELLOW FARMER

Ireland

Learn from other farmers who understand what it takes to keep herds healthy and productive by increasing their immunity against pathogens calves and adult cattle are generally exposed to.

MEET YOUR FELLOW FARMER

Ireland - Sheep

Learn from other farmers who understand what it takes to keep herds healthy and productive by increasing their immunity against pathogens calves and adult cattle are generally exposed to.

MEET YOUR FELLOW FARMER

Netherlands

Learn from other farmers who understand what it takes to keep herds healthy and productive by increasing their immunity against pathogens calves and adult cattle are generally exposed to.

MEET YOUR FELLOW FARMER

Turkey

Learn from other farmers who understand what it takes to keep herds healthy and productive by increasing their immunity against pathogens calves and adult cattle are generally exposed to.

Professor Dirk Werling, Royal Veterinary College

Professor Dirk Werling tells about the importance of immunity for the herd and especially for newborn calves. He explains the difference between prevention and treatment, the concept of ‘cocooning’ and stresses the importance of colostrum management or as he called it ‘the golden kiss for life’.

VOD Kámen, Czech Republic

Learn from other farmers who understand what it takes to keep herds healthy and productive by increasing their immunity against pathogens calves and adult cattle are generally exposed to, like VOD Kámen in Czech Republic. They solved their disease incidence of neonatal diarrhea and pneumonia and improved the health status of their young stock.

Dr. Paul Williams, Veterinary Services in UK (MSD Animal Health)

“In our research we found that the majority of the vaccines are not stored on the correct temperature in the fridge. Some of the fridges had a temperature that was too high and some of them actually froze the vaccine”. Dr. Paul Williams explains why it is so important to check the fridge on the farm and store vaccines at the correct temperature.

Dr. Jantijn Swinkels, MSD Animal Health

Dr. Jantijn Swinkels explain the concept of epigenetics and what the impact is for later in life. “Epigenetics starts playing a role after conception, before the animal is born. It sets the genes up for success later in life; for immunity and metabolism.”

Dr. Geert Vertenten

“Prevention programs will make the lives of farmers more easy, more regular and they are prepared for the unexpected” according to Geert Vertenten. “In the end it will give the farmer a better production and sustainability”.

Contact

Time to Vaccinate is an initiative from MSD Animal Health

For questions about Time to Vaccinate,
please send an email to
timetovaccinate@merck.com

Learn today for tomorrow

Keeping animals healthy and productive is our goal. Vaccination protects cattle from certain diseases and keeps them healthy. Read more about the most common diseases that can be controlled by vaccination.

Contact your vet for advice about vaccination programmes for your farm.

Calf Scours

Calf scours is the most common cause of death in calves. It accounts for most deaths in calves less than 1 month old1. Pathogens such as rotavirus, coronavirus, cryptosporidium and E. coli are major causes of infectious calf scours. Most farms have one or all of these pathogens 2. Young calves are very vulnerable in the first weeks of life and multiple factors (e.g. nutrition, hygiene, stress, housing or weather conditions) can trigger calf scours 3. When the dam is vaccinated before calving, she will provide colostrum that gives the calf an extra boost of protection against rotavirus, coronavirus and E. coli.
Learn more about colostrum management

Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD)

Pneumonia or Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most common disease in calves more than one month old. Areas of the lung emboli die and the damage is significant and permanent. Even if animals recover, their performance during their lifetime is compromised4. Multiple factors can trigger this disease. Vaccination protects young calves against the severity of pneumonia and may control outbreaks along with improvement of nutrition, hygiene, stress, housing conditions and the general immunity level in the herd.

Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) in cattle

Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted by infected animals. Fertility problems are a sign of infection along with a low immune response. This low immunity makes infected animals vulnerable to all kinds of other diseases. If the dam is infected during pregnancy, she will give birth to a persistently infected (PI) calf which will spread high levels of virus to other animals. The direct and indirect costs and production losses of BVD are high5. To prevent BVD, it is important to know if you have PI animals on your farm. These animals should be removed. Herds can be protected through vaccination, regular monitoring and biosecurity measurements to prevent introduction of the circulating virus.
Learn more about BVD

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)

IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1). This infectious respiratory disease of cattle makes cattle carriers once they are infected. Stress may reactivate IBR and the animal will start shedding the virus again, infecting other animals in the herd. Signs of IBR include fever and respiratory signs such as runny nose, discharge from the eyes and coughing. Infected animals can show a lower milk production and may experience abortion. Herds can be protected by vaccination and biosecurity measures to prevent introduction of the virus into the herd.

Clostridia

Clostridial infections of sheep and cattle are caused by a group of 10 major bacteria that exist in soil, on fields, within buildings and even in the tissues and intestines of cattle and sheep. Some bacteria can survive in the environment for years and triggers such as changes in feed and management or stress can cause them to multiply and shed toxins. The toxins spread rapidly and cause death, often within one day. Some examples of clostridial diseases are black leg, malignant oedema, black disease, tetanus, botulism and enterotoxaemia. Due to the rapid progress of the disease, it is difficult to treat it successfully. Clostridial infection can be prevented by vaccinating against the 10 key pathogens for cattle and sheep.

Lungworm

Lungworm infection can be a severe and often fatal disease, causing major damage and lesions on the lungs. Animals without immunity can become infected when grazing. During the next 4 weeks, the larvae will develop and excrete millions of fresh larvae onto the pasture, infecting other animals. A lungworm outbreak causes severe loss in milk yield, poor fertility and loss of animals. The vaccine is given orally to young stock for active immunisation to reduce the clinical signs and lesions. Animals will gain lifetime immunity from contact with lungworm.

Ringworm

Ringworm in cattle is a fungal infection of the skin. The ring-shaped lesions on the skin are easy to identify and leave scarring on leather hides. Animals affected with ringworm show reduced growth and production losses and the infection can be transmitted to people who work with infected cattle. Ringworm is not easy to control. Fungal spores are very resistant, can survive in the environment for months and are spread easily by infected animals. Vaccination protects animals against ringworm infections and reduces the impact of existing infections. Disinfection of housing and the environment is important to prevent the spread of ringworm.

Salmonella

Salmonellosis causes diarrhoea and abortion in cattle and some salmonella types are a serious threat to human health. Infected animals will remain a carrier for the disease and infect other animals and their environment. Controlling salmonella protects the herd and the people who handle the cattle. Carriers should be removed from the herd to prevent further spread. Biosecurity measures prevent salmonella entering the herd. Vaccination protects animals against infection and may reduce contamination of the environment.

Foot rot in sheep

Foot rot is one of the most common causes of lameness in sheep. This disease is highly infectious and can spread easily through the flock. The indirect costs of lameness are significant – reduced productivity, fertility and longevity. If more than 5% of the flock is lame, a control plan is needed. This plan consists of 5 steps: Treatment of the infected animals, preventing spread, vaccination of the entire flock, culling of persistently recurring animals and quarantine for animals introduced to the flock.

Abortion in sheep

Chlamydophila abortus is one of the most common causes of abortion6. The bacteria can be transmitted from sheep to sheep and the main source of infection is aborted foetuses and infected ewes which shed the bacteria. The costs of abortion are significant. Control of the disease focuses on diagnosis of the cause, preventing its spread (removal of aborted foetuses and material), separation of infected animals and vaccination to protect ewes. Vaccination will give 3 years of immunity and will reduce the number of abortions on infected farms.

References

1. USDA, 2007, Dairy, part 1: Reference of Dairy Cattle Health and Management Practices in the United states, USDA-APHISVS, CEAH, #N480.1007. National Animal Health Monitoring System, Fort Collins, CO.

2. Bartels, C.J.M., Holzhauer, M., Jorritsma, R., Swart, W.A.J.M., Lam, T.J.G.M.,2010. Prevalence, prediction and risk factors of enteropathogens innormal and non-normal faeces of young Dutch dairy calves. Prev. Vet.Med. 93, 162–169.

3. Lorenz, I., Fagan, J., More, S.J., 2011. Calf health from birth to weaning. II.Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves. Irish Vet. J. 64, 9.

4. Bach A., 2011, Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation, J. Dairy Sci. 94 :1052–1057.

5. Weldegebriel, H.T., Gunn, G. J., Scott, A.W. 2009, Evaluation of producer and consumer benefits resulting from eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) in Scotland, United Kingdom. Prev. Vet. Med. 88, 49–56.

6. Kerr, K., Entrican, G., McKeever, D., Longbottom, D., 2005, Immunopathology of Chlamydophila abortus infection in sheep and mice, Research in Vet. Sci. 78- 1, 1–7.